Discoveries in the Czech State Archives in Klecuvka

The third stop of my trip to Zlin earlier in April has been the regional branch of the State Archive in Klecuvka. By that time, I already had some email exchange with one of its custodians, Dr. Marek, who was answering my initial inquiry regarding Silvestr.

Dr Marek is not just the custodian of the state archives, but also historian who is pursuing some research of his own. One of the areas of his academic work is the past of the Bata company, including some of its darker moments: for example it using force labor of the Jews from the infamous Auschwitz concentration camp. Uncovering and naming those old wounds makes him quite a controversial person in the view of some people. I was therefore quite keen to meet him in person.

My visit of the archive has been very fruitful on other accounts as well. During several hours of scrolling through various documents, I came across several fascinating pieces and some unique photographs (due to restrictions on their further sharing, I will be posting some of them later in the future, once I clear all the procedures).

machiv1Photo: The author leafing through one of the Bata publications in the State Archives in Klecuvka; photo courtesy of Pavel Stojar.

The first document for me to seek has been a list of Bata employees that were dispatched overseas. The list is quite a heavy dossier, with hard leather cover. The title in golden capital says “The List of Employees Overseas”.

zlin_seznam_desky

As we can read on the first page, it has been created in September 1944, during the occupation of Czechoslovakia by the German Nazis. The list contains names of all employees who were sent abroad from Zlin (Germany, for obvious reasons, was not considered as being abroad).

Doctor Marek explained to me that as the Bata staff was sent to work abroad, so went their personal files with them. That means, in the case of Silvestr, that his files were further kept in Singapore and it is futile to try to find them here in Zlin. My initial attempts to get in contact with the nowadays branch of Bata in Singapore had unfortunately not been successful. Despite that the likelihood of them keeping at least some fragments of old company archives from 1930’s and 1940’s is very low, I believe it is still worth checking, and I will continue to do so.

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Next page in the list captures statistics about how many employees and to what destinations were sent during the first half of 1939 – that means it already included a period of time of the establishment of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, but yet before the World War II officially began. In the first six months of 1939, in total 502 people were sent abroad by Bata from Zlin. Most of them were heading for US and Canada. As we already know, Bata was also establishing its base in Asia since early 1930’s, first in India and then in Singapore. The statistics say that 22 employees went to Singapore in early 1939 (while 30 others to India, both British and Dutch colonies combined). In total, 50 employees were sent from Zlin to Singapore during 1930’s.

Before we move on to the individual records, let’s spend some more time on the introductory pages where some more statistics is summarized. There is in total 1032 employees of Bata documented as working abroad. That means that about half of them were transferred there just in the first half of 1939 (Silvestr himself departed for Singapore on 31st December 1938).

seznam4

While these are still quite abstract numbers, I keep trying to imagine the real life and stories behind them. For example:

  • An overwhelming majority of these were men. Of the only 34 women listed, only one was married. The other 33 women were moving out alone, and as we can read elsewhere, many of them married abroad and left not only Bata, but also Czechoslovakia permanently.
  • The racial identification says that there were 79 non-Aryan people (= read Jews). Their departure from Europe, on the very eve of the outbreak of the WW2, almost certainly saved their lives.
  • Most of them were quite young, between 20 and 30 years old at the moment of their departure (Silvestr was only 19 when he sailed off to Asia). That means these must have been rather young talents than experienced managers. And indeed, according to the records provided, there were only 36 staff (out of 1032) who were 40 years or older when they were transferred.
  • That makes an interesting contrast with another fact: about 75% of them had already had 5 to 15 years of service for Bata upon their departure – meaning that they worked for the company from a very young age (some of them probably in parallel to attending the school).
  • Therefore it is not surprising that 125 had only primary, and another 516 only secondary school education. Having a higher or university degree was quite rare among the group. However, 315 of the listed staff (some 30%) had graduated from the “Bata School of Work” – a special system that Bata created for young people. It was providing them with an education while they were already working for the company.
  • The vast majority of them left from Czechoslovakia before the WW2 started. The biggest wave of departures took place in the first half of 1939 (574 people) and a year earlier (191). After 1940, only 18 people were sent to work abroad.
  • Regarding the professions, most of the employees who went overseas worked in the sales department (433), followed by shoe fabrication (176). There are only 30 people recorded as managers or directors who are in the group.
  • The list also says that in total 23 people were dispatched for a particular job of the pedicurist – a position that Silvestr was assigned in Singapore.
  • The Bata company registered 67 family members who accompanied it’s employees sent abroad. In 1944, these were also receiving allowances paid by the company, totaling 51 000 Czechoslovak crowns per month (i.e. on average 760 crowns per person per month)

seznam5

One other thing that caught my attention was a small box on the bottom right that talks about “enemy property”. It sums the property of 447 employees, valued at 48 million Czechoslovak crowns. I can only guess what was the definition of an “enemy person”, perhaps those that refused to confirm their citizenship under the Nazi Empire? It’s however very likely that the “enemy employees” included those Batamen in Singapore who volunteered to join the British defense forces.

After the introduction and summary pages, the details of individuals follow. Every entry for each individual is captured on a very long line or strip, and one has to unfold the page to open it in full length. The document is made with quite some high precision, and includes a miniature photograph attached next to each name.

Thus, we are opening the pages starting with letter N… and here comes Silvestr – we can even see his young face!

Silva1

Every page also has an additional sheet of paper that was attached later and contains some hand written notes. The Bata clerks also made two crosses next to Silvestr’s name to indicate that he had died (same can be found for others who did not survive the war). The record of Silvestr contains his name, states 20th October 1919 as his date of birth, and says that he had graduated from a business school (with a sign suggesting it was not the Bata School of Work, therefore must have been some other school).

Pictures bellow are the cropped photographs of the long strip with the data about  Silvestr. Further it says that he was unmarried when he was leaving, that he was heading to the “Singapore Straits Settlement”, and that he departed on 31st December 1938. His previous position at Bata was of a salesman, while his upcoming position in Singapore would be a pedicurist.

Silva2.jpg

We can further see that he was organized under the sales department, and that the company organized his pension insurance in Singapore, starting on 1st October 1940.

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Finally, there is an address of the next-of-kin, naming and giving the home address of Silvestr’s father:

Silva4.jpg

So much for the initial record produced on a typewriter.

The hint of the dramatic events that followed, including how the news were gradually arriving to Zlin, are captured on the attached strip in a series of four hand-written notes:

Silva5.jpg

Here is what they say when translated into English:

  1. To an inquiry we replied that we will inform later upon finding ourselves.
  2. Mr Lachs says that he was in Singapore in 1943
  3. Report from Bata Batanagar, via Bata Limited London – Mr Nemec who suffered a serious injury when he was fighting in Singapore was reportedly killed when the Japanese occupied the hospital in which he was finding himself as a patient
  4. Killed at action in Singapore – according to a telegram from Mr Jugas

Putting the slightly bizarre bureaucratic style aside, I read this as a miniature drama of four acts, condensed into telegraphic sentences.

The first of the notes most likely refers to the post-war inquiry by the family.

The third note might be dated to November 1945 – which is when Mr. Vyhnalek reached London after several weeks on board a ship from Singapore. In London, he was filling his liberation questionnaire at the War Office. It is quite likely that, once being in town, he also visited the Bata company there and shared his stories. It also seems natural that the company would then pass on the information to it’s headquarters in Zlin, where it was eventually recorded. The list of Bata overseas employees also has this note next to Mr Vyhnalek’s record: “Bata Ltd London reports that he was liberated as a prisoner of war and is on his way to Europe – letter is dated 4th November, delivered to us on 7th November.”

The fourth note then may be from early 1946, because Mr Jugas sent a personal letter with a similar content to the family on 22nd January 1946.

What I find very strange though is the second note, capturing a bit mysterious information from Mr Lachs that “was in 1943 in Singapore”. First of all, it will be interesting to find out who Mr Lachs was, as he does not appear on the list of Batamen who were stationed in Singapore in 1940’s. In addition, I found almost an identical note next to the name of Rudolf Janecek – another Bata employee who also signed up for the volunteer defense forces and did not make it, having had died as POW on malaria and beriberi in February 1945. Maybe Mr Lachs, or maybe the clerk noting his information down, had mistaken 1943 with 1942? It would then make much more sense. The other interpretation though is that indeed, Silvestr was seen and recorded as alive in Singapore in 1943. This however conflicts with majority of other reports and documents that suggest he had gone missing on 15th February 1942, possibly having been actually murdered in the Alexandra Hospital on 14th or 15th February. One way or the other, trying to identify this Mr Lachs will be yet another directions of my further search.

And here is where I stop for today.

None of the additional findings in the State archives in Klecuvka provided any further specific information about Silvestr. Despite that, they will be very handy when I will be trying to describe the operation of Bata in Malaya in 1930’s and how the Czechoslovaks have perceived the Far East at that time. What will also be useful are the contemporary photographs commissioned by the Bata company and available today in the State Archives. And last but not least, similar to some of my discoveries in the Batanagar News, I also found some noteworthy and fun stories about Bata that I will share at some point in the future. So, stay tuned (and share please).

 

 

 

Visiting Bata Villa, and finding the first treasures of the Batanagar News

Back in April, I have been paying a day trip to the city of Zlin – the original home of the nowadays globally present shoe-making company Bata. It is this originally Czechoslovak company that my great-uncle Silvestr Nemec started to work for at the age of 17, and that later dispatched him to it’s branch in Singapore at the end of 1938.

There have been three places that I was in particular eager to visit in Zlin.

First is the monument for the victims of the Second World War. Silvestr’s name is engraved on it’s panel dedicated to those who had fallen while fighting overseas. Despite that the monument has just been fenced off due to some restoration work, I could not have helped but to climb over and pay respect to Silvestr.

zlin_pamatnik_mensi.jpgphoto: Author Jan Beranek at the Zlin WW2 memorial, standing next to the panel with Silvestr’s name.

The other two locations – Villa of Tomas Bata, and the local branch of the State Archives in Klecuvka – were promising to provide some materials and documents for my search.

Today, I will be summarizing my visit of the villa.

Batova_vila_panorama.jpgPhoto: Bata Villa today

My earlier inquiry with it’s secretariat had resulted in a prompt response by Ms Zvolska. She was pointing me primarily to the State Archives, which are the custodians of the preserved files of Bata company from 1930’s and 1940’s. However, the website of the Bata Villa also mentions that they own a small library and provides a list of the available publications. When I was scrolling through it, two of its items caught my eye: The archived editions of the Batanagar News from 1938, 1945 and 1946; and a publication named “The Fight and Fate of the Batamen in Singapore and Malaya”, written by Jan Baros and published in Canada in 1945.

Thanks to a military-historical essay published by Ivan Prochazka back in 1996 (available in Czech on a website here), I knew that the October 1945 edition of the Batanagar News published a report titled “The Story of Batamen in Malaya” that mentions Silvestr.

It was not so hard to find it, and here comes the first gem:

Batamen 1.jpg(you can find the scanned remaining pages at the end of this article)

Turns out that the above mentioned report was printed on the front page, and it continues on three additional pages inside the weekly newspaper.

The report begins:

“Just this week the first batch of Batamen from Malaya arrived to India after three and half years of internment in the Japanese prison camps. They arrived in such a condition that that the authorities had to send them to a hill station to enable them to recuperate at least partly their shattered health and over-strained nerves, before they could see their friends and families at Batanagar. Only two of the group were able to undertake the tour from the port of Madras to Batanagar. They are Mr. Bohman and Mr. Jedovnicky, both Graduates of the Bata School of Work, who gave us first hand information about the life under the Japanese in South East Asia.”

The text describes in quite some detail the events starting from the mobilization in Singapore in December 1941; through the last minute evacuation of civilians on ships, many of which were sunk by the Japanese shortly after departure; the fall of Singapore in February 1942; the horrors and tolls of the prison camps including some sabotage actions that  Bata employees undertook when they were tasked with production of shoes for the Japanese soldiers; and ends with the liberation of the internment camps at the very end of August 1945.

There are two moments when the name of my great-uncle appears, first is the paragraph describing the intake of the Czechoslovak volunteers to the defense forces:

“In the beginning of December complete mobilisation was ordered all over Singapore. The Czechoslovak Batamen who were of military age and healthy, all joined the SSVF – the Straits Settlement Volunteer Force – and FMSVS – the Federated Malayan States Volunteer Services. The training was quick and hard, but they, and all the others who joined, undertook it with the greatest earnestness, as they felt the gravity of the situation. Matus, Bohman, Kozusnicek, Ambroz, Jedovnicky were in Machinegun Units; Vitek, Janacek, Nemec were with the Riffle Corps; Cepka, Mraz in Bomb Disposal Units; Zamara and others in the some other and so on. These units were posted for beach defense all along the coast.”

The second time that Silvestr Nemec’s name appears is in the paragraph about the February fights, and claims that he was killed by the Japanese in a hospital:

“Casualties – yes, there were many. It cannot be ascertained now who and how many were wounded, so far as we know, Kozisnicek, Vitek and Nemec were wounded. Nemec was sent to the military hospital, when later the Japanese captured it, in the rage of animal brutality they mercilessly killed all the wounded soldiers lying in beds. Here Nemec met his end.”

This text – along with the private letters from Pavel Ambroz and Antonin Jugas that I had already published and a hand written note in the list of Bata employees – is another contemporary document that places the death of Silvestr to the Alexandra hospital that was massacred by Japanese on 14th and 15th of February 1942.

The question however remains as to who or what is the primary source of this reoccurring information, probably. It’s quite obvious that neither Ambroz or Jugas, neither the unknown Bata clerk who was writing the note in Zlin headquarters, were present in the Alexandra hospital during that tragic day. Therefore, they could not have witnessed Silvestr being murdered there. Also, only a fraction of the hospital documents survived the war and only a minority of the names of patients and staff involved is known and documented (and Silvestr’s name is not among them).

This actually has been one of the main reasons why I wanted to read the original piece in the Batanagar News, hoping that it may reveal some additional clues. Unfortunately, it did not. Yet, having access to an original article that writes about Silvestr has been already a great reward for me!

The other chance was the second publication, written by Jan Baros. It turned out that it is just an expanded version of the piece from the Batanagar News. Its additional parts are dealing with the history of setting up the Bata branch in Singapore in 1932, the details of life and more stories from the internment camps, and also a lengthy section about the methods of torture of the prisoners by the Japanese. However, there is no additional information about Silvestr, neither about the last days of the fights for Singapore.

baros1.jpgPhoto: Scan of the front page copy of the Jan [John] Baros publication, found in the library at the Bata Villa

Importantly though, the extended version confirms that it is based on the testimonies of Bohman and Jedovnicky. Where did those two got the information about Silvestr’s murder in Alexandra Hospital remains unknown. The story must have been told and shared among the prisons in the camps. But what was its origin?

Could it be that Vitek or Kozusnicek – who too, according to the Batanagar News, were  injured during the fights – were also admitted to the Alexandra Hospital? Then they could had been the surviving witnesses. That certainly sounds like a plausible scenario.

In order to verify that, could we somewhere find their first hand accounts? Vitek had not survived the imprisonment, having had died of malaria in Batu Litang prisoner camp on Borneo on 18th March 1945. However Kozusnicek was among the lucky ones who made it, and maybe he recorded his accounts – or someone else captured his authentic memories elsewhere. These could certainly contain some break through information, and I will continue searching for such documents if they exist.

Both versions of the text about Batamen in war were written by Jan Baros, who obviously had a good story telling talent. But this represents another potential question mark. Today’s reader can’t help but feel a certain over-dramatization and simplification of the story. Saying that, I want to express my full respect and gratitude to Jan Baros for capturing and publishing the history that otherwise would most likely be forgotten by now. It’s just that if we are serious about a historical research, we should keep a healthy amount of skepticism about the details described. The tendency to over-dramatize facts is for example obvious from the account of Alexandra Hospital massacre: “… when later the Japanese captured it, in the rage of animal brutality they mercilessly killed all the wounded soldiers lying in beds.” Although the merciless brutality of the hospital capture became known and well documented as one of the infamous war crimes, the fact is that by far not all patients were murdered – it is estimated that about 250 of over 800 of unarmed people present (both medical staff and patients) were intentionally killed by the Japanese troops.

Jan Baros, who wrote both texts, has also been the chief editor of the Batanagar News. This weekly had been published by the Bata Shoe company for it’s employees in India. Most of them lived and worked in Batanagar, a small town newly built by Bata on the bank of the Ganges River near Calcuta (by today, the area had already been incorporated into the modern megacity). Jan Baros also wrote several books documenting the early years of Bata company in the Far East, for example ” The First Decade of Batanagar”.

As I was turning the old pages of the Batanagar News, I came across many other interesting information about the Bata Company in India and Singapore, where it established its first two Asian branches in early 1930’s. At some point, when I will be trying to reconstruct the picture of late 1930’s when Silvestr was living and working there, I will be coming back to this newspaper as one of the useful references.

I will wrap up today by sharing this picture that really made me laugh. It had been published in November 1938:

smrtka.jpg

As my Indian friends quickly confirmed and translated, the original text on the poster is written in Bengali, and translates as “Beware of Tetanus, even a small injury could be dangerous – so wear a shoe”.

To be continued. And don’t forget to wear shoes!

Annex: All four pages scanned from the Batanagar News

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Batamen 2.jpg

 

Batamen 3.jpg

 

Batamen 4.jpg

 

1947: When the Hope Ends

While the preserved correspondence from 1946 bears witness about the desperate attempts of the Němec family to find any clues about the fate of their son, a year later the letters already carry a ruthless conclusion – Silvestr had not emerged even after the liberation of Singapore, and had been officially declared dead. The hopes planted in 1945 had unfortunately proven to be false.

The first letter of 1947 came from the Downing Street, and is addressed to Františka Němcová, Silvestr’s mom. The Under Secretary of State informs the family that the Colonial Office does not know anything more than the fact that Silvestr had been reported missing on 15th February 1942.

19470704 london

Silvestr’s father then forwards this letter to Mr. Josef Vyhnálek – a colleague and close friend of Silvestr from Singapore. Mr. Vyhnálek was among several people from the Bata company who got in touch with the family after the war ended. He had been particularly helping the poorly educated family from countryside to communicate with institutions and arrange matters overseas.

The most heartbreaking note can be found on the other side of the letter. It brings me nearly to tears every time I look at it. Here, we can see Mr. Němec’s handwritten note to Mr. Vyhnálek:

„Mr. Vyhnálek, we are sending you our warm greetings along this letter that we had received from London. One professor who came to Vémyslice [our village] helped us to read it. We are supposed to write to the Governor, you can see this and also other things we ought to do in the letter. Mr. Vyhnálek, all [word “all” is crossed] is lost, this our searching and writing is futile, our dear Sylva is certainly dead!!!”

Less than two weeks later, the Social Welfare Department of Singapore files an official Certificate of Death.

19470717 certificate

It’s not clear whether this is in response to the inquiries from London and Vémyslice, or it had been done anyway due to the fact that nearly two years had passed since the liberation of Singapore (September 1945) and Silvestr had not been seen nor did he report anywhere.

However, the Singapore government obviously does not have any additional information either to confirm Silvestr’s death. The uncertainties are captured by the formulations in the Certificate of Death that reads: “it has been presumed… [that Silvestr] died in or around Singapore… on or about 15th February 1942….”.

Shortly after that, the family receives a letter from Mr. Vyhnálek. It appears that he might have been the last person to ever see Silvestr – and that was during the fierce fight over the Pasir Panjang ridge along the southern coast of the Singapore Island (these fights took place on 13th and 14th February).

19470821 Vyhnalek

Mr. Vyhnálek refers to Silvestr’s Certificate of Death and adds:

“This is an information from the official record, I can only add that the chances of him to be still alive are very small, because it’s almost two years since the war and he has not reported yet. It is a very sad report, I wish to share with you details of his death if only they were known to me. Unfortunately I do not know more than I have already told you during your visit to Zlín. I remember well how we were attacking the Japanese, he [Silvestr] was very pale, so it seemed to me that he might have felt that something would happen. It was when we were attacking the hill CAP [correct reference is Gap Hill – note by JB] near Pasir Panjang in Singapore, when we reached about half [of the slope], thousands of airplanes spotted us and what followed was that we were heavily bombed and fired upon from the machine guns. During that bombing we ran and scattered into the rubber plantations and that was the last time I have seen your Silva. During all the time of my captivity I thought he might have escaped to India or Australia, but after the liberation I have unfortunately learnt that nothing is known about his fate.”

As far as I know, the family had never learnt anything more than this.

Mr. Vyhnálek, as we can also see from his letter, was a gifted storyteller. As I will share later, he had recorded his memories elsewhere, and thanks to those we will learn more about the battle of Singapore as well as about his years of captivity as the Japanese Prisoner of War.

* * *

In the meantime, my own search focus on the Czech city of Zlín. Several of my initial contacts recommended me to get in touch with Dr. Marek from the State Archive in Klecuvka near Zlin, which holds a large collection of historical files of the Bata company. So i did. About a week later following my short inquiry email, I had received a remarkable reply:

— QUOTE —

Dear Mr. Beranek,

thank you for your inquiry dated 14th March 2017 regarding Silvestr Němec, a former employee of the Bata company, who died on 12th February 1942 in Singapore.

We had looked into the inventory of the Bata archives and searched for Silvestr Němec, however his employee card had not been preserved.

At the same time, we looked into the available lists and catalogues of selected Bata staff. We are holding eleven so called “Personal catalogues” that contain biographical and professional records of 1,100 employees who were selected for further carrier growth, as well as catalogues of “Employees in Progress” that contain copies of the personal cards. Unfortunately, neither of these mention Silvestr Němec.

Finally, we searched in the “List of Overseas Staff” that contain records of staff sent overseas before or around the beginning of the WW2 and who had still been residing overseas by 1944. These files contain some basic information, and luckily Silvestr’s name is among them, along with these facts:

Name and Surname: Silvestr Němec

Date of birth: 20 October 1919

Marital status upon departure: Not married, no children

Education: business academy

Starting date with Bata company: 21 September 1936

Position before the departure: salesman

Date of departure and destination: 31 December 1938, Singapore Str. Settlement

Position upon arrival: pedicurist

Contact address: Němec Silvestr, Vémyslice 23, okr. Moravský Krumlov (father)

After the war, four hand written notes had been added to his record:

1) Following an inquiry, we replied that we will inform upon learning more

2) Mr Lachs reports that in 1943 he was in Singapore

3) Report by Bata office in Batanagar, via Bata Limited London – Mr. Němec who suffered a serious injury when he was fighting in Singapore, was supposed to be killed when the Japanese occupied a hospital where he was lying as a patient

4) Killed in action in Singapore – according to a cable by Mr. Jugas

— END QUOTE —

Further in his letter, Mr. Marek helpfully suggests some additional archives for further search.

This went much beyond my expectations! I had not expected a state institution to investigate and prepare such a detailed answer. Thanks to it, I am learning some new facts about my great-uncle: his date of birth, when he started to work for Bata, when did he leave (on New Years Eve of 1938, which had been his name day!) and what jobs did he perform. Particularly the four additional notes are crucial and very valuable in learning about his final destiny!

This had of course encouraged me a lot, so I had added Zlín to the itinerary of my trip, planned for late April 2017 when I was going with my children for a week to our motherland.

I will report back about my visit to Zlín, as well as to the Vémyslice village where Silvestr was born and raised, next time.

1946, A Year of Uncertainty

The letter from Pavel Ambroz, received by the Nemec family in December 1945, suggested the option that Silvestr might still be alive in one of the intern or prisoner of war camps in the Far East. This was of course a strong motivation for Silvestr’s parents to set on a search for their son’s fate, as much as they could – but let’s not forget about their limitations, living in a small village in the Czechoslovak countryside and speaking no foreign language.

The family archive contains also a copy of their reply to Pavel Ambroz, sent to Batanagar shortly after the New Year, on January 12, 1946:

(Batanagar was established in 1934 as a small town built by Bata company in India, serving the needs of its newly opened leather shoe production factory. Nowadays, Batanagar became a part of the larger suburban area around Calcutta. The whole community of Bata employees in Batanagar, and its role in documenting the stories of Czechoslovak compatriots in the Far East, is worth a more detailed description – I would like to come back to that at some point later.)

“Your kind letter from 21st December 1945 brought us a great joy, both because we have learnt something more about our son, as well as because you poured at least some hope into our hearts that he might still be alive […] We are grateful for the photograph you sent and hopefully you won’t mind if we ask you to send us five more copies, so that we can share them with the family and his friends,” writes Silvestr’s father back to Mr. Ambroz.

He also asks for any additional information and invites Mr. Ambroz, in case he would come to the region, to come and visit the family in Vemyslice village, so that they can talk about Silvestr in person.

Ambroz reply from Batanagar comes soon after this, dated 21st February 1946 – he sends additional four photographs and the original negative, and adds a sweet note worth quoting:

“Please, forgive my that I am writing you these letters in a business style, but I do not have talent to write personal letters. My mother is complaining about this all the time.”

Silvestr_letter_from_Ambroz_19460221.jpg

Setting upon another direction of search, Silvestr’s father also writes a letter to a remote Singapore. Dated 2nd January 1946 and addressed to Antonin Jugas, the head of Bata representation in Singapore, the letter mentions the possibility of Silvestr being killed and reads:

“Hopefully you will be able to understand us, old parents, who do not want to believe such an agonizing report and therefore grab any opportunity so that the report [about Silvestr’s death] can either be confirmed, or pronounced as false.”

By the end of the month , Jugas responds with a quite elaborated letter that also contains some new details about Silvestr’s role in the Singapore defense military forces. Jugas also mentions some steps he had already taken in the search:

“Dear Mr. Nemec.

I had received your letter yesterday and I am terribly sorry that it has to be me to give you the report that is so sad not only for you, but also for all of us. The barbarian war had claimed in total 8 lives from our “Bata family” here in Singapore.

I will try – as much as I am able – to give you a true picture about what had happened since he was mobilized, however I apologize if some details that you would be interested in are missing, I will gladly answer if you write me back with questions. We, all the Czechoslovaks, were interned by the Japanese and were went through tremendous suffering, until we were liberated by the British army.

Your son, as well as all ours who volunteered, was mobilized on 4th December 1941 and was assigned to the armored vehicles (B company) as a private number 13779.

Up until the end of January 1942, we were receiving regular information about everyone, but after the fight for the Singapore island started, all reporting stopped. It was only from other our people that we had learnt after the capitulation that your son was injured and taken to a hospital. Since then nobody has ever heard of him, a real hell stormed over the Singapore that time. It took about a week until they emerged, one by one – all dirty, ragged, exhausted, but not everyone, as we expected [hoped]. That was in January 1942.

In the early September 1945, as soon as we were liberated by the British army, we searched for information about all from our family who were missing.

On the day of 12th November 1945, we sent a written inquiry about your son to the main command in Singapore, and we received a written reply that until they obtain a formal army report, they cannot provide us with any information.

As a result, I am not able to give you any information either, nor positive nor negative. We are however keeping in mind [or recording?] the fate of all of our people and I will not forget to inform you once an official army report arrives.

We had also taken steps to take care in the matter of all the estates of your son, particularly the financial matters, with banks and post office. As for the personal property in his apartment, there is almost no hope, all the houses were occupied by the Japanese who took what they liked and destroyed the rest. We all lost all of our personal belongings, except of few small pieces that we kept carrying with us at all times. However I will make an attempt on this as well to see whether anything could still be recovered.

Attached please find also one photograph, which I took from his record in our files, I think it might be his last photograph and you may appreciate it.

Despite the fact that I have no official information, I am writing you in order to not keep you in an uncertainty for too long. I know how it feels, all of my family was evacuated to India for 3 ½ years, and I did not get any single line from them for the whole time. My wife kept writing every month, but the Japanese probably threw all the correspondence to the sea.

As I have already informed you, we have a complete register of all the Czechoslovaks here, and I will share every detail immediately with you.

With my deepest condolences, yours,

A. Jugas”

 Silvestr_letter_from_Jugas_19460122.jpg

What I find interesting on this letter is not only the very kind tone of Mr. Jugas, but also the fact that the Bata company apparently gave a great care for “their” Czechoslovak people.

Shortly after I started my own search, I began to come across other documents and stories that illustrate the strong bongs within the Czechoslovak community in the Far East – they were spending their free time together, organizing sports, weekend activities, dinners and public cultural events, some of them even exhibiting the traditional Moravian folk costumes that they brought along, or that the women made upon their arrival in Singapore. The Bata company was contributing to it a lot; among other things, it established and sponsored a local soccer team called “Moravians”, whose matches were reported in the local newspapers. That’s one of the topics I definitely want to return to later – it seems there is plenty of information and documents that might help to reconstruct how Silvestr’s daily life might have looked like in the years 1939-1941 in Singapore.

Finally, as far as the family archive shows, the Nemec parents sent a pleading letter also to the Czechoslovak Ministry of Defense, which took four months to reply in May 1946 in the most formal and bureaucratic style:

“The British Ministry of War – in order that it can investigate your case, requests more information about the military unit at which your son had been serving. Therefore please provide the known information to the Czechoslovak Ministry of Defense, especially about at which military unit your son had been allocated.”

* * *

As far as my own investigation goes, following the two leads I had mentioned in the previous post, my attention went to several different directions.

The first steps were focusing on the Bata company. Perhaps they might keep an archive of their old files, either in their headquarters in Zlin, or with their Far East representation?

I am keen to get hold of anything that might either provide any new information and clues about Silvestr, or can document and confirm what we already know. There are many questions I would love to learn. When did the company employ him for the first time? When and why exactly was he dispatched from Zlin to Singapore? Was he among those who were attending a special practical school that Bata had opened for young kids and his future employees? Has any correspondence or files survived in some archives, either pre-war or post-war, such as letters between Mr. Jugas and the British Colonial Office? Did the company collect some memories of it’s staff after the war, and could these contain some recollections about Silvestr?

Thus, one late March night, after I was done with my business correspondence, I sent an email with few questions to the universal contact address kontakt@bata.cz, having no particular expectation. I have to admit it was not a through-through move, but rather a few minutes’ effort done mechanically before turning the computer off. There were good reasons to be skeptical, because we all know how these hotlines of large companies work: there are people on the other side of the line, doing not very inspiring job and being under the pressure to deal with as many requests as possible, and they tend to follow quite rigidly the standardized scripts of usual consumer’s demands. That’s why I was very pleasantly surprised when I got a reply from Ms. Rajchova in less than 24 hours:

“I did a check upon your inquiry. The information about former Bata employees can be found in the State Archives in Klecuvka near Zlin, or possibly through the Tomas Bata Foundation. Here are their contacts: http://zlin.mza.cz and http://www.batova-vila.cz.”

Inspired by her mention of these two institutions in Zlin, I quickly checked and found one more that might be helpful – the Bata Information Center established under the Tomas Bata University in Zlin.

Very soon, all three had replied.

The Batova Vila suggested me to look at the Klecuvka State Archives. The Bata Information Center made the same recommendation, but also included few basic information, some of which were already new to me:

“According to the information available to us, your great uncle Silvestr Nemec was born on October 20, 1919, graduated from a business school and at the age of 17 year joined the Bata company as a salesman. This happened on 21st September 1936. On 31st December 1938, he sailed off to Singapore to work there as a pedicurist. The post war information suggests that he was severely wounded in the battle and taken to a hospital. When the Japanese arrived, they killed him in that hospital, among many others.”

Next time, we will follow up on the State Archives in Klecuvka, and other things.

Hopes after the war

My rediscovery of Silvestr’s story began this February. I realized only retrospectively that it was just few days from the very date of the 75th anniversary of his presumed death. Although this timing therefore was not part of any plan, it turns out to be one of the multiple strange coincidences that I have already observed since.

It was late February, during my last travel to my motherland. When I was visiting my relatives, my mother brought with her a folder with some old family documents. She knew that I have been trying to map our ancestors recently, therefore those old marriage and death certificates came handy.

However it also turned out that the folder contained about two dozen of papers related to my nearly  forgotten great uncle Silvestr Nemec. This includes one letter that Silvestr sent back home upon his arrival to Singapore in March 1939, and then several letters that his friends and colleagues from the Bata company branch in Singapore wrote to his parents after war ended, trying to provide them with recollections about their missing son.

In a letter dated in December 1945, Mr. Pavel Ambroz writes:

“About three days before the occupation of Singapore by the Japanese, [Silvestr] was wounded and moved to a field hospital. After the fall of Singapore (15 February 1942) I was looking for him in all hospitals but did not find him. Now that the British took over Singapore again, I was searching military records and found that he had been listed as missing.

It is possible that he had left on one of the ships that were evacuating the Europeans out of Singapore, got captured on the sea by the Japanese war ships and were interned at various prison camps on Java, Sumatra and various places in Indonesia. There is about 250,000 prisoners on Java, and there are no precise lists of all names yet. The fighting is still going on there.

After the Japanese occupied Singapore, I went to look at my and your son’s apartment. Both were pillaged. […] . I am very sorry that I cannot give you any more details. I do however hope that once the allies accomplish the occupation of Java, they will find him in one of the prison camps there.”

Silvestr_letter_from_Ambroz_19451221

This is the first of the letters that were delivered back to Silvestr’s home after the war. We don’t know whether the parents received previously any information about their son, but quite possibly this has been the first news that reached to them.

Today we already know that the hopes of Silvestr reporting and coming back were futile. However we can vividly imagine the pain and hopelessness that his parents must have been feeling, as well as the desperate hope outlined in Mr. Ambroz’s letter to which they were surely clinging.

vemyslice1

An old postcard from the Vemyslice village in the Czech Republic, where Silvestr was born and raised.

The first information I found at the beginning of my search has been a page of the Czech Association for Military Graves (http://www.vets.cz/vpm/silvestr-nemec-1202). Silvestr is in their records thanks to his name being engraved on a memorial monument for the victims of WW2 in Zlin. This is a great discovery! I will have to visit that place during one of my upcoming trips to Czech Republic and pay my respect to him.

The association also published a short compilation of information about Czechoslovak citizens who were defending Singapore in 1942, quoted from an essay by a historian Ivan Prochazka, who had published it back in 1996. Many of those Czechoslovaks were then taken as Prisoners of War, and most of these were lucky enough to also survive the horrible conditions of the Japanese war camps.

Notably, there is also a direct reference to Silvestr Nemec in the work by Prochazka:

“By 2nd February 1942, almost all volunteer units were deployed on the front in order to stop the advance of the Japanese army. During the first battles, under constants shelling of artillery, three Czechoslovaks were injured: Kozisnicek, Vitek and Nemec. […] During the occupation of Singapore, the private Nemec was killed along with many other injured soldiers as well as medical staff in the Alexandra hospital”.

Poor parents, they have probably never learnt even this much about the fate of their son!

The admirable work of the Czech Association for Military Graves also led me directly to the record of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission on Silvestr: http://www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/casualty/2140339/NEMEC. From this we learn that he was fighting as a private number 13779 under the Straits Settlements Volunteer Force.

What is interesting is that they recorded February 17th 1942 as the date of Silvestr’s death, which is three days after the massacre in the Alexandra hospital. Upon my inquiry, the Commission replied that unfortunately they don’t keep any additional details or information other than those already available online.

It’s been however also another nice discovery that Silvestr’s name is also engraved on the Kranji cemetery Singapore Memorial. I have already got in touch with several compatriots there and asked them to take and send me a photo of Silvestr’s name on the memorial.

That’s it for today. Next, I will cover what was happening in 1946, as well as some of my other recent findings.

(Note: this blog is being published both in English as well as in the Czech language)

 

Start of the journey

Few weeks ago, I have decided to launch a quest for information and documents related to the life and death of my great-uncle, Silvestr Nemec.

In 1939, the Bata Shoe company sent Silvestr from it’s home base in Zlin, Czech Republic, to it’s newly established branch in Singapore. This is also where the war eventually found him at the end of 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Silvestr volunteered and was mobilized to the army to defend Singapore against the Japanese invasion. Then, by mid February, during the fall of Singapore, he was most probably killed. The only thing known for certain though is that he had gone missing, and after the war he had never returned.

For his family living in the village of Vemyslice, in the southern Moravia of the Czechoslovakia, it was a deeply traumatizing story. The parents had not only lost their young son, but even after the war, they never learnt much information about his fate either. Silvestr had been formally declared dead by the British government two years after the war, in July 1947:

silvestr_death_certificate

Later, in 1951, the British government awarded the family a small compensation, which was based on the estimated value of the lost Silvestr’s property. However at the end of the complicated bureaucratic process, perhaps also because it was a poor family with only limited education and no knowledge of foreign language, living in a countryside – and by that time already behind the iron curtain – only a fraction of the awarded amount eventually reached the parents. The feeling that eventually someone had even robbed them of the little legacy left behind by their dead son only deepened their despair and bitterness.

That’s probably one of the reasons why Silvestr was almost never talked about in the family. The horrible and traumatizing story was to be suppressed and pushed out of their minds as much as possible.

My mother never had a chance to meet her uncle Silvestr: he had disappeared three months before she was born, and that happened more than six thousand miles away. I myself can only vaguely recall few occasional mentions of Silvestr’s name, mostly when my grandmother – who was a sister of his – went to lay flowers and maintain the small war memorial in the center of the village. Silvestr’s name is engraved there, among dozen other local citizens who died during the WW2.

Although I spent a great deal of my childhood at my grandmother’s place in the village – almost all of the weekends and vacations, enjoying a magic time on the farm there that I loved so much! – Silvestr Nemec has been nothing more to me than a vague, abstract name. It somehow belonged to a distant story of my grandmother’s brother, who I knew perished in a similarly abstract, distant battle of the world war. Nothing of an interest for a young boy exploring the outdoor adventures of a beautiful countryside.

vemyslice2

Postcard from Vemyslice, dated 1934, picturing the center of the village as Silvestr have known it. The house of his family is to the right, hidden behind the tree.

From the larger historical perspective, the story of Silvestr is a barely noteworthy one. There were hundreds of thousands and millions of people who perished during the hell of the Second World War. Silvestr himself joined the volunteer defense units in Singapore and fought, registered as a private, a short hopeless battle; his role in it was most likely very limited, with no outstanding achievement or heroism.

Had I began my search for the facts and evidence twenty years ago, I still might had a reasonable chance to find some living witnesses and capture their first-hand  accounts about those particular events and perhaps even memories of my great uncle. Today, 75 years later, it’s unfortunately too late as probably none of them is alive.

Yet, I have decided to set upon this journey. Determined to discover and collect whatever I can. I wish to do that in order to pay my respect to Silvestr Nemec, whose tragic story got almost forgotten, and to bring it back to my family and to those who will now learn about it as a result of my effort.

I am not hoping that my efforts will bring additional clarity and truth about the events of the past. However I believe that the encounters with people and institutions along my way, as well as the exploration itself of whatever evidence there might be in archives and scattered around, will become an exciting story on its own: a story happening today, seventy five years after Silvestr’s pronounced death, yet an equally open ended and interesting story.

I am setting off on this journey now, and will be sharing my reports here on this blog as I go. I would like to thank you for your interest, as well as any advice or encouragement you would like to share.

Jan Beranek

(Note: this blog is being published both in English as well as in the Czech language)